Bilirubin in blood or urine determines the usefulness of the functioning of this important body like the liver. Elevated bilirubin is a deviation from the norm and may indicate the development and course in the body of many dangerous pathologies.
The reasons for the increase in the blood bilirubin is very much, therefore, to decide what was the impetus for the emergence of such a measure, we need timely and qualitative diagnosis, which will help to avoid the development of weight complications.
What is bilirubin
Bilirubin refers to the pigment that result from the breakdown of red blood cells occurring in the spleen and human liver. The substance is excreted along with the feces, the bilirubin and it gives a specific tone to the stool.
How is the bilirubin? Red blood cells "carry" haemoglobin for all cells and organs of the body, but the aging of the red blood cells begin to disintegrate in the spleen, liver or bone marrow. In this released hemoglobin, which is oxidized and converted to bilirubin.
Important! The increase in the blood bilirubin is a dangerous sign, indicating the presence of problems in the liver and haematopoietic organs.
The newly constituted bilirubin (indirect bilirubin) – a very toxic and dangerous for the body, so the liver starts to actively "work" on his disposal. The result is a so-called "direct bilirubin" which is no longer a danger to the organism and excreted with bile.
But if liver enzymes cannot cope with the clearance of indirect bilirubin, there is a threat for the whole organism which interrupts the natural flow of bile and possible severe toxicity to all organs and systems.
Analysis for bilirubin and its norm
Using biochemical analysis of blood are the causes of bilirubin in the blood – whether that was due to disorders in the liver or by increased breakdown of haemoglobin.
Please note! The timing of the blood amount of bilirubin helps to diagnose the presence of pathologies in the body and prevent their development.
The rate of bilirubin in the blood can vary widely, but a significant excess of the established parameters indicates a serious violation of the internal organs.
In clinical studies also used the term "total hemoglobin" – the body has no such substances, and this concept denotes the total number of indirect and direct bilirubin.
Common rules in the blood of bilirubin
|Indicators||The rate for adults||The rate for newborns|
|Indirect bilirubin||To 15.4 m/mol at 75% of the total number||0% of the total.|
|Total bilirubin||8,5-20,5 m/mol per liter of plasma||51-60 m/mol – the first day of birth,
Up to 256 m/mol – 2-7 days from birth.
|conjugated bilirubin||To 5.1 m/mol – 25% of the total weight||Not more than 10% of the total weight|
A significant excess of bilirubin (more than 34 m/mole per liter of plasma) indicates the development of jaundice. However, elevated bilirubin, appearing in infants, is not considered a pathology and is associated with natural physiological processes.
To get the most accurate data, analysis is taken on an empty stomach in the morning. Eve should not eat fried, spicy, smoked food, alcohol, should reduce their Smoking, to avoid physical and mental fatigue.
Important! Before blood sampling for 8 hours of no eating, 4 hours should not use the liquid.
Increase in blood amount of bilirubin is not a disease and is categorized as a symptom of adverse changes in the body. Therefore, for the normalization of this index in the blood necessary to establish the causes which led to such violation in time to treat the existing disease.
Why can increase bilirubin
Increasing the concentration of bilirubin is possible with excessive production of the enzyme or in the presence of obstacles to its excretion from the body. Over-education is most often associated with genetic diseases and difficulties with the production of substances usually occur in diseases of the liver and biliary tract.
The main reasons for the increase of bilirubin in the blood:
- Either acquired or congenital anemia, which is caused by the accumulation of bilirubin is indirect. Acquired anemia develops as a complication after suffering autoimmune diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis) or on the background of infectious lesions (sepsismalaria).
- Violation generation of direct bilirubin in the liver. This occurs when lesions of this organ, hepatitis, liver tumors, cirrhosis, Gilbert's syndrome, etc.
- Problems in the gallbladder – the bile flow may be impaired in connection with diseases of the bile ducts or when they are squeezed.
- Receiving drugs affecting the excretory function of the liver, that is violating the passage of bile. Such drugs include NSAIDs, some hormonal agents, chemotherapy.
- Helminth infection – the penetration of parasites in the bile ducts and the liver can significantly degrade the performance of these bodies.
- Lack of vitamin B12.
Bilirubin in the newborn is often elevated due to the fact that the enzyme system of the liver is not yet sufficiently formed. But as the formation of indirect bilirubin is converted faster in a straight line, and the signs of increase of bilirubin (jaundice) just leave.
However, the child may also be pathological causes of bilirubin:
- Infectious hepatitis;
- Incompatibility in the mother and child's RH factor and blood group;
- The violation of outflow of bile;
- Hereditary fragility of erythrocytes.
Depending on which process is broken and how pathology develops in the blood an increase of one faction or another – direct or indirect bilirubin.
Please note! If the analysis shows an increase in total bilirubin with an equal number of fractions, such pattern indicates pathology of the liver. The bilirubin in the urine increased as well.
If increased performance of direct bilirubin, this indicates a violation of the outflow of bile that can cause the following pathologies:
- Biliary cirrhosis;
- Hepatitis (autoimmune, bacterial, viral, drug, toxic);
- Syndrome Dabina-Johnson;
- Cancer of the pancreas, gallbladder, liver;
- The Syndrome Of The Rotor;
If counts are elevated indirect bilirubin, then this is based on the destruction of redundant red blood cell count that is characteristic for the following States:
- Infectious diseases: typhoid, malaria, sepsis;
- Gilbert Syndrome;
- Congenital, toxic and acquired hemolytic anemia.
In some cases, there are several reasons for the increase in blood bilirubin levels which may influence each other. For example, liver disease can occur due to destruction of worms and affect the gall bladder. This significantly complicates diagnostics when determining the cause of the pathological state.
Manifestations of elevated bilirubin
Suspect increased bilirubin in the blood can be yourself, without carrying out diagnostic procedures, the presence of the following signs:
- Dark urine and discoloration of feces;
- Heaviness and discomfort in the right side;
- Dizziness, lack of energy, apathy;
- Belching, nausea after a meal;
- Staining to yellow eye sclera.
In viral hepatitis in humans in addition to these signs are greatly increased temperature.
Hemolytic anemia clinical picture will be complemented by a strong pain in the left upper quadrant and heart, fever, severe headaches, darkening of the urine to almost a black color.
When violations of the liver and gallbladder people will feel discomfort after a meal (otjinene in the right hypochondrium, izzhogu, belching), bitter taste in the mouth, falling health, loss of appetite. And serious diseases are accompanied by a severe yellowing of the eye sclera and skin.
Important! Strong jaundice, intense pain, vomiting, point to the development of hepatitis Aof cirrhosis or tumours of internal organs.
If any of the above symptoms need urgent access to a doctor for a more serious diagnosis, which typically involves an ultrasound and a CT scan of internal organs.
How to normalize the levels of bilirubin
To reduce excessive bilirubin possible only after the elimination of the underlying disease. While planning the treatment of high bilirubin may be the only infectious diseases specialist or therapist (depending on the disease and its stage). Each therapy has its own list of side effects and contraindications, and self-appointing their own treatment, the person could worsen his condition and not to remove the pathology.
The main methods of stabilizing bilirubin levels:
- The removal of stones or tumors – recommended for violation of patency of the biliary tract.
- Infusion therapy (infusion of albumin, glucose), plazmoferez. Used with a strong increase of bilirubin to remove the intoxication and detoxification of excess of bilirubin and products of metabolism.
- Phototherapy. Under the influence of special lamps toxic bilirubin is converted into a straight line and freely displayed body. This method is completely harmless and therefore is often used for zheltushki in newborns.
- Using special enzyme preparations and remedies that promote detoxification (activated carbon POLYSORB).
- Diet. The diet should be adjusted to reduce the load on the liver. You should stop taking carbonated drinks, fried, spicy, salty foods, alcoholic beverages, spices, sweets.
- Herbal medicine – relevant at low increased levels of bilirubin. Used decoctions of milk Thistle, immortelle, motherwort, chamomile.
The increase of bilirubin in the blood is a dangerous condition which can not in any case be ignored. At the first sign of excess bilirubin should be promptly examined and treated by qualified professionals.