Cleft lip – pictures, causes and treatment

Cleft lip - the main symptoms are: speech disorders hearing impairment emotional instability

Cleft lip or presented is a congenital defect of development of the nasal cavity and upper jaw. Externally, the disease has the appearance of a cleft upper lip. Diagnosed in 0.04% of newborn children, mainly boys. Quite often in the background of cleft lip develops another defect – cleft palate. It is characterized by the separation of the soft and hard palate. The defect gives the baby has problems with breathing and eating.

Заячья губа – это врожденный дефект, который характеризуется нарушением во внутриутробном периоде нормального развития носовой полости и верхней челюсти
Cleft lip is a congenital defect that is characterized by impairment in utero the normal development of the nasal cavity and upper jaw of the baby

Description

Cleft lip is 2 types – unilateral and bilateral. Depending on the depth of the defect there are 3 subspecies of unilateral cleft lip:

  1. Full. Characterized by conspicuous and rather deep cleft, which is localized from the upper lip to the nasal cavity.
  2. Incomplete. Concentrated only in the lips.
  3. Hidden. Lose covers the muscle without affecting mucous membranes and skin.

Bilateral cleft lip is divided into 4 subspecies:

  1. Full. The patient has two clefts, localized from the lip to the nose.
  2. Incomplete. The defect covers only the area of the lips.
  3. Symmetrical. Characterized by clefts of the same size.
  4. Steel. The defect with one side more prominent than the other.
Характерной формой данной патологии является деформация верхней, реже нижней губы на лице ребенка: она расщеплена и состоит из двух или трех частей
The characteristic form of this disease is the deformation of the upper and, less frequently, the lower lip on the face of the child: it is split and consists of two or three parts

The reasons

Experts identify the following reasons for the formation of cleft lip:

  1. Infectious diseases of the mother during the first trimester of pregnancy.
  2. Taking certain medicines.
  3. The accommodation of the expectant mother in the city with unfavorable environmental conditions.
  4. Smoking mother.
  5. Genetic predisposition.
  6. The use of alcohol and drugs while carrying a child.
  7. Cancer.
  8. Late pregnancy (after 40 years).
  9. High stress and emotional stress.
  10. The presence of overweight.
  11. Diabetes in women.
  12. anemia and pathology of the cardiovascular system.
  13. Strong toxicosis in the first months of pregnancy.
  14. Hypothermia or overheating of the body of the mother.
  15. Complicated pregnancy.

There are certain factors that increase the risk of cleft palate:

  • the availability of abortion in the past women;
  • improper diet;
  • blows to the abdomen during pregnancy;
  • surgery on organs of the lower abdomen;
  • poisoning with chemical substances;
  • attempt to provoke miscarriage;
  • a benign tumor of the uterus;
  • the exposure to x-rays or ultrasound.

Please note! Newborns with cleft palate are subject to many pathologies. Because of a defect of the palate increases the risk of infection in the auditory organs and the respiratory tract.

In addition, cleft palate leads to disruption of verbal abilities. Due otitis a child with this diagnosis may completely lose your hearing. The liquid penetrating into the nasal cavity, provoking the emergence of chronic sinusitis.

Due to a malformed jaw in humans, there are problems with the chewing of food. This deficiency causes various diseases of internal organs. Deformation of the teeth also causes the formation of caries.

It is important to promptly remedy the defect, the child is not experienced in the future psychological problems associated with its appearance.

Данный дефект образуется у плода на ранней стадии развития, а именно во время первого триместра беременности, когда женщина может еще не подозревать о своем положении
This defect is formed in the fetus at an early stage of development, namely during the first trimester of pregnancy when a woman may not be aware of their position

Symptoms

For cleft lip and cleft palate is characterized by such symptoms:

  • the formation of defects on the face;
  • speech disorders;
  • frequent ear infections and colds;
  • malocclusion and development of the dentition;
  • problems with digestion;
  • hearing loss;
  • slow weight gain;
  • obsessive feelings about appearance;
  • emotional disorders.

Diagnostics

Often enough the visual examination, the specialist diagnosed the patient with a cleft lip. To identify problems with other organs, you should consult a ENT doctor.

Important! Recognize the symptoms of cleft lips can be during carrying a child. This should undergo ultrasound examination at 14 weeks of pregnancy.

На сегодня патологию заячьей губы можно разглядеть еще на УЗИ после четвертого месяца беременности, однако сам диагноз врач может поставить только после рождения ребенка при полном его обследовании
Today the pathology of cleft lip can be seen more on the ultrasound after the fourth month of pregnancy, however, the diagnosis, the doctor can put only after a birth of the child no survey

Treatment

To eliminate cleft lip and cleft palate is possible only through surgical intervention. Operation is recommended before the child reaches 6 months, or before that period, until he started teething.

Contraindicated surgical intervention in such cases:

  1. The child has small weight, consistent with their age.
  2. The presence of diseases of the circulatory system or heart.
  3. Respiratory failure.
  4. Endocrine pathology.
  5. Disruption of the digestive system.
  6. anemia or jaundice.
  7. Severe injuries during childbirth.

To remedy the defect using various types of surgical interventions. The choice depends on the severity of the disease, the species and the presence of comorbidities.

Heyloplastyka

The operation is to restore anatomic, functional and aesthetic value of the affected lip. Cheiloplasty should be carried out when the child was 3 to 6 months.

Important! If the disease is severe, then surgery can be done in the first days of a baby's life or within 1 month.

In the presence of defects of the upper lip, muscles of the oral cavity and turbinate shows the primary inhalatie. This operation is more extensive and complex in contrast to the primary cheiloplasty.

If the child has a diagnosed deformity of the nose, upper lip and alveolar process of the upper jaw, the doctors for correction used rhinocheiloplasty. Timely operation is guaranteed creation of favorable conditions for the restoration of the upper jaw and the proper growth of teeth.

In the preoperative period, it is customary to use a special dental splints, plaster and cast inlays. After surgery the doctor the nasal passage of the child establishes gauze to protect the joint area from the ingress of food and mucus, as well as to prevent narrowing of the nasal opening. After the tampon is removed, the nasal passage lay a piece of plastic tubing to prevent defects of the nose wings. Sutures are usually removed after 7-10 days.

Please note! After the plastic should prevent infection in the wound.

In the recovery period need to regularly show the baby a pediatric dentist, the surgeon and the orthodontist.

If the child revealed a cleft lip without deformation of the sky, rather than 1 operation to remedy the defect, if the gap is bilateral, you will need 2 or more interventions.

In 90% of cases with plastics to achieve a positive result and to adapt the child to normal life. In 65-80% of cases may require surgery to correct residual deformities of the lip and the nasal cavity in older age.

The cost of plastic surgery for the removal of cleft lip varies 20 000 – 110 000 rubles.

Хейлопластика эффективна только если расщепление небольшое по размеру и нет нарушения в строении хрящевых и костных элементов носовой полости и челюсти
Chiloplasty effective only when splitting small in size and there is no disturbance in the structure of cartilage and bone cells of the nasal cavity and jaw

uraniscoplasty

If the child was born with a cleft palate, it shows uranoplasty. Depending on the severity of the disease and condition of the patient correction of the upper lip and uranoplasty can be carried out simultaneously or in several operations. At an early age the child correct the soft palate, and after a few months of starting the correction of the hard palate. Children at the age of 1.5 years, these operations are performed for the 1st time.

Please note! Surgical intervention is performed under General anesthesia. It lasts for several hours. Throughout this period the state of the child controls of the medical staff. The anesthesiologist closely follows heart activity and the breathing of the patient.

Before conducting uranoplasty doctors take urinalysis and blood child. You also need genetic testing and examination of the cardiovascular system.

complications

Improper conduct reconstructive cheiloplasty you may receive the following complications:

  • expressed scarring;
  • the development of purulent infection when injected into the wound of harmful bacteria;
  • improper contour of the lips;
  • joints due to improper care of the child;
  • unwanted reaction to the anesthesia.

Feeding a baby with cleft palate

Babies born with a cleft palate, feeding should be in a half-upright position. His head must be located above the level of the nipple. Direct the nipple or bottle with the mixture in the intact part of the sky. The thumb and index finger a woman should hold the chin and cheeks of the baby, and hand to support the breast. It is recommended to frequently change the position of the baby, so he was free to burp out the air. After feeding the oral cavity the child should be treated with a disinfectant solution.

To facilitate the process of sucking, you can use breast massage before feeding.

Feeding children with this diagnosis should be used special devices – orthodontic nipple slit nipple and Haberman. Manufacturers offer different modifications, so the nipple should choose, focusing on the nature of the deformity, type of food and age of child.

What are the complications causes cleft palate?

The consequences of the disease can be expressed on the mental and physical level of the patient. Quite often, cleft palates, is the cause of disability. It lasts until, until you have completed all the operations needed to eliminate all negative symptoms. Another consequence of cleft palate is considered the fact that the patient may be born child with the same defect.

The most frequent complications of pathology include:

  • infectious diseases of the organs of hearing;
  • sinusitis;
  • frequent colds;
  • dental problems;
  • disorders of the digestive organs;
  • dysfunction of the vocal apparatus.

prevention

In order to avoid the development of the child cleft lip and cleft palate should follow these recommendations:

  1. While carrying a child to eat a balanced, making the diet of fresh fruits and vegetables.
  2. To strengthen immunity to take vitamin-mineral complexes.
  3. To minimize the risk of Contracting infectious diseases during pregnancy.
  4. Not to self-medicate and don't take any medicines without a doctor's prescription.
  5. To avoid the negative impact of adverse environmental factors.
  6. To give up Smoking and alcohol during pregnancy.
  7. To avoid medical examinations with irradiation of the fetus.
  8. Not to have contact with people who have infectious diseases, for example, chicken pox.
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To protect your child from possible genetic mutations, expectant mothers are advised to treat their health issues and the future baby

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Olga therapist
Author: Updated article: 05.10.2018
I wish You the time of day. I therapist, with experience of over 17 years in public hospitals and private clinics of Moscow, St. Petersburg. Constantly expand their sphere of knowledge, modern and better ways to treat diseases. On the pages of this online medical directory Simptom-Lechenie.ru share with readers his knowledge and advice, respond to comments and questions. Waiting for Your feedback.

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