The influenza virus strains from year to year are changing, so flu vaccines every year usovershenstvuetsya and supplemented by other components. Scientists are developing a vaccine before the new influenza season, given the forecast of which flu strains will be distributed with greater probability in a given territory.
Which vaccine was developed for the 2018-2019 season
Influenza virus there are three main subtypes: A, C, and V, among which the most dangerous are types b and A, whose genetic material is in constant mutation. This leads to the emergence of new strains of flu which are dangerous for the population that immunity against them in humans has not been developed.
Classification There are several classifications recommended and tested medications. Composition:
- live vaccines;
- split inactivated;
- consist of whole inactivated.
Effect on the strains:
- trivalent protects against three types of virus (two A and one B);
- tetravalent respectively protect against two type A and two In....
In recent years, the most dangerous is the subtype of the virus "swine" influenza A/H1N1, which unlike the bird flu can quickly spread from person to person, thereby contributing to the rapid spread of the disease.
Important! The flu virus constantly changing its genetic makeup, so the flu vaccine must be constantly reformulated. For this reason, influenza vaccination should be done annually.
Flu vaccines typically protect against 3-4 strains of the virus simultaneously. Trivalent vaccines protect against two strains of type A (H3N2, H1N1) and one strain of type B. First developed in 2013-2014 tetravalent influenza vaccine designed to protect against strains of the same plus additionally developed a new strain of influenza B.
Flu vaccines 2017-2018 differ in composition from vaccinations last season, both in the trivalent and tetravalent form.
The composition of trivalent vaccines:
- Virus strain A/ mi/45/2015 pdm09 virus H1N Is an optional component of H1N1 is different from last year.
- Virus strain A/Hong Kong/4801/2017, the virus H3N Component that was included in last year's vaccine.
- The strain of the virus In/Brisbane/60/2008, a virus of type b Victoria lineage). Component of the strain type b, the same vaccination last year.
- Tetravalent vaccine in addition to the above composition contains the second strain of virus type a strain In/Phuket/3073/2013.
The structure of the developed vaccines against influenza in 2019 aims to protect the population from seasonal flu and the prevention of infection "swine" influenza A/H1N1.
Types of vaccines against influenza
Currently you can select in the clinic flu vaccine: foreign or domestic, uncoupled or alive. Each of the proposed vaccine generates immune protection from influenza virus.
In addition to the standard flu vaccine, the vaccine which is done through a needle vaccination available in other forms, for example, vaccination with high dose for people over 65 years of age, the option of a small dose (intradermal inoculation) and nasal spray. In some clinics, the vaccine can be done with a special needle without syringe (with jet injector) at which the injection is done under high pressure.
Please note! A nasal spray against influenza is not recommended for use during the period of vaccination against influenza 2018-2019, in view of its ineffectiveness in preventing influenza in the period from 2013 to 2016.
What are the different types of flu vaccines:
- Flu vaccine live. The composition contains weakened viruses that can cause flu-like symptoms. After using them formed a stable immunity however, there are often post-vaccination complications and reactions. Vaccination is intranasally way (through the nasal passages): children from three to 14 years, twice with three to four-week intervals, adults (from 14 years) – once. Example: "influenza Vaccine allantoine alive" (producer, Russia), at the same time protects from three strains of the virus.
- Flu vaccines consist of whole inactivated. Made of concentrated and purified virus of flu made on the basis of chicken embryos by means of UV irradiation. These vaccines should not be prescribed to individuals who are allergic to chicken protein and children up to 7 years. Example: "Grippola" (producer – Russia), adults may be administered by subcutaneous and intranasally, children only intranasally way.
- Flu vaccine split (split vaccine). Of viruses in the composition of the vaccine no, she is with protein structures of viruses. Such vaccines can be administered already from 6 months of life, they do not contain chicken protein, and therefore do not cause the corresponding allergic reaction. The vaccine is administered intramuscularly in the outer surface of the shoulder, small children may be administered into the outer thigh. Example: Vaksihryp (France), "Begrivac" (Germany), Flyuaryks (England).
- Flu vaccines subunit. Cause the least number of post-vaccination reactions, are the most purified. Composed only of purified surface antigen of the virus. Example: Grippol Plus and Grippol (Russia), influvak (Golaandiya).
Pregnant women can use for grafting any proposed flu vaccines except the nasal spray. That is, pregnant women are recommended to vaccinate inactivated ("killed") vaccines or recombinant flu vaccines, which were produced without the use of chicken protein, and therefore cannot cause allergic reactions.
What kind of flu vaccine to choose a list and prices
Together with the mutation of the flu vaccine it change every year. In Russia, for the second year in a row being vaccinated with the drug "Sovigripp"(producer – Russia), which this year made the active ingredient against the new strain of the virus Michigan.
In addition, in Russia, other available drugs against influenza, which can be used to fight the virus and as a preventive measure against the disease.
List of flu vaccines 2018-2019 types and prices:
- Grippol, Grippol Plus (Russia) – subunit flu vaccine, the average price 170-250 roubles;
- Vaksigrip (France) – split-flu vaccine, the average price RUB 570-640;
- Flyuaryks (Russia) – split vaccine, the average price of 350-550 rubles;
- Begrivac (Germany) – split-vaccine average price – 300-540 RUB;
- Rippowam (Russia) – the inactivated flu vaccine, the average price RUB 160-270;
- Influvak (Netherlands) – subunit, the average price RUB 270-320 ;
- Inflexal (Switzerland) – the inactivated flu vaccine, the average price RUB 320-480;
- Agrippal (Italy) – subunit, the average price – 300 RUB.
Feedback about the vaccines used in Russia for the flu are different, purely subjective. The effect of a particular vaccine for a particular person it is impossible to predict, as though to pick up the vaccine needed doctor in a specialized clinic, and the vaccine itself must be certified.
The choice of vaccines should take into account the age of the patient and his condition. Persons with chronic illnesses and pregnant women to pick up the vaccine should only doctor.
Please note! In this 2019 should choose the flu vaccine with the presence of the strains of "Hong Kong" and "Michigan", because these viruses are the most dangerous for its complications.
Typically, influenza vaccines are compared for post-vaccination reactions – that is, whether they can cause side effects. Most of these reactions cause live vaccines, which, at the same time, form the most stable immunity. Allergic reactions can induce Rippowam, which is also not recommended for children under 7 years of age and pregnant women.
The safest are considered to be the subunit of a split flu vaccines, which cause minimal side effects, do not cause allergic reactions and 60-70% develop strong immunity against the flu virus. Such drugs include Grippol, Vaksigrip, Agrippal.
Foreign flu vaccine in 2019, is usually higher in cost because they are considered to conform more to the standards of quality and more refined. But the drugs of domestic and foreign production differ little in composition. Therefore, if there are no contraindications, it is safe to be vaccinated by the Russian vaccines. Their composition is under control of the Ministry of health and Rospotrebnadzora, and constantly improved.