blood tests for creatinine concentration
blood tests for creatinine concentration

Blood tests for serum creatinine concentration can be estimated by the CrC, taking into account that the volume of urine and creatinine in the above equation is approximately constant. The concentration of CrC depends on diet, age, and muscle mass. Body weight[kg] plasma Creatinine[mg/DL] For women design...

Angiography
Angiography

Angiography. Angiography has been largely replaced by noninvasive methods of imaging . Readings remain in the renal study the concentration of renin in the renal veins, angioplasty and stenting in patients with stenosis of the renal arteries. Arteriography is also often used for the evaluation and treatment of renal bleeding and before...

antegrade pyelography
antegrade pyelography

When antegrade pyeloureterostomy of radiopaque drug is administered at nevalstisko drainage, rarely by percutaneous puncture of the kidney under ultrasound or x-ray guidance, sometimes contrastirovania performed at ureterostomy or via subcutaneous urinary conduit retrograde. The study shows for the detail of the changes of the upper urinary tract, establish the cause and...

Protein in urine – is this normal? Causes, pathology, treatment
Protein in urine – is this normal? Causes, pathology, treatment
Protein in urine indicators and standards. Benign causes of deviations and serious pathology. How to test and when to start treatment.
Biopsy of the bladder mucosa
Biopsy of the bladder mucosa

A biopsy should be performed by trained specialist. Relative contraindications to renal biopsy are hemorrhagic diathesis, single kidney and misunderstanding of the patient. It is possible to prepare sedatives, analgesics and atropine. The most dangerous complication is a severe renal bleeding with hematoma formation prerenalnaya. Sometimes require blood transfusion, the rise...

Bougienage urethra
Bougienage urethra

Probing the urethra. Probing the urethra is used to not rapid expansion of the structures of the urethra and the elimination of metastanate. Meatholes girls oligourethane eliminate the bougie. When expressed structures of the urethra in men, apply a thin conductor, which is carried out above the constriction. By the end of the bougie to join the growing...

Bladder catheterization
Bladder catheterization

Catheterization of the bladder. Catheterization of the bladder in the urethra, is used for emptying, thus can be obtained the urine for the study, the measured residual urine volume. Catheterization is carried out by injection of the radiopaque medium for cystography, instillation of drugs in diseases of the bladder. Emergency...

Magnetic resonance imaging
Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging. For patients MRI safer than CT because it does not cause contrast nephropathy. MRI angiography is used to strengthen the blood vessel imaging have virtually replaced angiography in the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis and thrombosis of the renal veins. It is also used for the differential diagnosis of hemorrhage...

Microscopic analysis of urine
Microscopic analysis of urine

A microscopic analysis. Detection of solid elements requires microscopic analysis, ideally conducted immediately after the rapid test and urination. The sample is prepared by centrifugation of 10-15 ml of urine at 1500-2500 rpm for 5 min. the Supernatant is completely removed, a small amount of urine remains with the sediment...

Full analysis of urine
Full analysis of urine

Urine analysis and measurement of the concentration of serum creatinine — the first steps in the evaluation of renal diseases. Other studies of urine, blood and imaging techniques such as ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging , performed under certain circumstances. Ideally, after cleaning the external opening of the urinary...

Why protein in urine during pregnancy – pathology and external factors. Treatment of deviations
Why protein in urine during pregnancy – pathology and external factors. Treatment of deviations
Why increased protein in the urine during pregnancy diseases and external causes. The norms of protein in the urine during pregnancy. Treatment of proteinuria, prevention
radionuclide scanning
radionuclide scanning

Radionuclide scan. Cortical radionuclide markers that are associated with the cells of the proximal tubules , is used to quantify excretion. Excretory markers, which are rapidly filtered and secreted, excreted in urine, is used for quantitative evaluation of excretory processes. Radionuclide studies are informative in the diagnosis of embolism of segmental...

X-ray analysis
X-ray analysis

X-ray diffraction study – an Overview of the urinary system performed in the beginning of each contrast studies, in addition, it can detect about 15% of kidney stones. Radiography after intravenous water-soluble contrast agent allows visualization of the kidneys and urinary tract system. Nonionic isoosmolar...

Retrogradnaya ureteropielografiya
Retrogradnaya ureteropielografiya

Retrograde ureteropyelography today are used much less frequently, mainly for the detail of the changes of the ureter below the obstruction, as well as assessment of changes in standard renal pelvis system in conditions of high contrast in cases of suspected tuberculosis, papillary tumor of renal and ureteral fistulas. The study includes urethrocystoscopy with...

ultrasonography
ultrasonography

Ultrasonography. Ultrasonography is widely used as a non-invasive method of screening diagnostics of many diseases of the kidneys, urinary tract and reproductive organs . Special preparation is not required. It is to a certain extent can be difficult to do especially obese patients. The study allows to assess the shape, size, location...

Cystoscopy
Cystoscopy

The cystoscopy. Cystoscopy inspection of the bladder mucosa using a special rigid or flexible fiber-optic instrument introduced along the urethra into the bladder. It is used to diagnose tumors, stones, symptoms of chronic inflammation of the bladder. Inspection of the urethra allows diagnosis of tumors and contraction. With...

Cystoscopy – the features of the women and men
Cystoscopy - the procedure for men and women? Indications for the cost
Cystoscopy – a method of determining the state of the bladder and urethra in General. Also, this method allows to correct some of the defects. Implementation of activities for women, men and children has characteristic features.
cystourethrography
cystourethrography

If cystourethrography x-ray contrast preparation is injected directly into the urethra and bladder. The technique is more accurate than WU for assessment vesicoureteral reflux, incontinence, recurrent UTIS, urethral strictures, and suspected injuries to the urethra or bladder. Excretory cystourethrography occurs during urination and...

What is semen analysis and why is it necessary? Preparation and interpretation of results
What is semen analysis and why is it necessary? Preparation and interpretation of results
What is sperm count, why take such an analysis? In some medical centers provide these services? The figures in the analysis of semen, the average price.
What is Familar screening? Transcript analysis
What is Familar screening? Transcript analysis
Familar screening is one of the most effective methods of examination of the female urogenital tract. That may show the procedure?
descending urography
descending urography

At excretory urography, the main contraindications are: Allergy to iodine and risk factors of contrast nephropathy. Excretory urography was previously used as an independent method of research. Today it is successfully replaced with contrastirovania MSCT and MRI of the kidneys and urinary tract. Additional x-rays...