Features of arterial bleeding in that it is characterised by rapid loss of blood, so emergency first aid must be immediate, within the first minute. The methods are applied according to the type of digital pressure, tourniquet, fixed flexion of the limb.
With any bleeding it is important to provide first aid and transport the patient to the hospital. In summary there are three types of hemorrhage, differing in appearance of the damaged vessel. The most dangerous is arterial bleeding, which threatens not only health but also human life. The second type is venous bleeding, which are damaged veins, well the safest is capillary bleeding. And all bleeding distinguished in appearance on the exterior and interior. The last first aid is already in the hospital when as when external venous and arterial bleeding you need to know the algorithm of rendering first aid, as these actions can save lives, and both yourself and others to the affected people.
First and foremost, if a person is detected with signs of blood loss, you need to determine the type of bleeding and overall health. He needs to calm down, to lay or sit in a comfortable position and then begin to provide first aid. Ideally, you should use a sterile dressing, which can be found in the car or home kit, but if this is not possible, we will use any means at hand, shawls, cloth, belt, rope that stops the loss of blood. Every person need to know how is stop arterial bleeding in the legs, arms, neck, head and torso.
The differences of arterial and venous bleeding
Undoubtedly, the many arterial and venous bleeding dangerous but they have significant differences, thanks to which there are differences in how it turns out first aid (abbreviated as PMP). Blood, unlike venous bleeding is associated with rapid blood loss, so, with the injury of large arteries such as the femoral, subclavian, a person can die in minutes.
Characteristics of venous bleeding. From a vein the blood flows slowly, it has a dark Burgundy color so often superimposed normal tight bandage with putting a wool which compresses the veins and stops blood loss.
In arterial bleeding the blood is bright red color that is due to its enrichment with oxygen and flows fast, pulsating jet. This is due to the fact that in the artery pressure significantly higher than in Vienna due to the need to deliver arterial blood to the organs. But capillary hemorrhage is not dangerous, as characterized by damage to small blood vessels that perform the function of gas exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Signs of arterial bleeding this files most often observed in open fractures of the limbs, after falling on a sharp object or during a crash. The most dangerous injury of the lower extremity – hip, and upper extremity – shoulder, upper arm and cervical region. Now we give the algorithm, how to stop arterial bleeding.
In summary there are 6 degrees of severity of blood loss. If there is arterial bleeding the first (easy) degree, this means blood loss in 10-15% of the total. At the second degree, a hemorrhage leaves 15-20%, with a third, heavy, 20-30 percent, in the fourth, massive, more than 30%. Are considered fatal fifth and sixth degree, when the blood loss exceeds 50%.
The finger pressure
Ways to stop arterial bleeding are temporary and permanent. The average person is more interested in temporary methods which help to save human life in extreme conditions. There are two main stages of first aid for arterial bleeding. The first step is by displacement of the affected vessel.
The fact that this injury is very rapidly increasing these symptoms:
- in addition to pain, people noted the weakness;
- quickly enough, can develop collapse (fainting);
- the skin becomes pale;
- adrenaline rush can cause a person to panic.
Therefore, if the person is conscious, it is necessary to soothe and temporarily stop the blood loss. A temporary stop is carried out by finger pressing above the wound. Minor bleeding is enough to pinch the artery of my fingers, and with a strong need squeezing fist. It is necessary to press the skin so as to press the vessel to the nearby bone.
Let us consider first aid using digital pressure if bleeding occurs blood:
- With the defeat of the carotid artery you need to press the vessel to the spine, and more specifically to the 7th cervical vertebra.
- If the damage is external maxillary artery you need to press on the lower jaw to the anterior edge of the masseter muscle.
- In the case of destruction of the temporal artery, the vessel is pressed against the temporal bone, a little in front from top of the ear.
- When wound of the subclavian artery is necessary to stop the bleeding using digital pressure vessel to the inner surface of clavicle or 1st rib.
- Brachial artery pressed to the inner surface of the shoulder (humerus).
- If the damage of the femoral artery you need to press to use the fist and to fix the vessel you need to the thigh or pubic bone.
- Popliteal artery peredelyvayut in the region of the tibia on the posterior surface of the tibia.
Please note! The best method of contact is by using all fingers of both hands for a period of 10 minutes, which is enough to eliminate minor bleeding.
More precisely determine the location of the pressure can be on the picture:
Important! If after pressing the bleeding is stopped, it is necessary either to strengthen pressure or you can select another point as the blood with such a wound quickly follows to the outside environment, so death can occur in few minutes.
Of course, to stop the bleeding by using finger pressure only at a certain time. You should either call an ambulance or to transport the person to the hospital in the case when the health condition allows. If the wound is serious, then additionally superimposed tourniquet.
Tourniquet with arterial bleeding contributes to making for a long time to stop bleeding. In case of excessive bleeding a tourniquet is placed immediately without waiting for the result from finger pressing. A tourniquet is applied only when external arterial bleeding.
Harness have car first aid kit, but if you can not find it, then you can use the means at hand: a belt from a belt, tie or any fabric, rope, rubber band, iron wire in a pinch. If blood loss is moderate, you can try to stop it by fixing a tight sterile cushion or bandage applied directly to the wound.
Do not forget that the tourniquet need to be extremely careful, as long by displacement of the extremities can lead to necrosis and tissue death. Place the tourniquet must be a few inches above the location of the wound. Before you fix the limb with the harness, you need to put it under the cloth or just fix clothes. Be sure to specify the exact time when I was tourniquet.
Important! In summer, the wiring overlaps no more than one hour, and in winter time to 30 minutes. After the specified time you need to relax the tourniquet for up to 10 minutes and if the bleeding doesn't stops, then apply again. 10 minutes is enough for oxygenation of tissues.
Instead of the harness you can't use a thin rope, various wire, which can damage soft tissue. The criterion for the correct formulation of the harness is the lack of pulsation on the downstream artery.
Provide first emergency care: algorithm of actions
The tourniquet in arterial bleeding can be replaced with a fixed flexion accompanied by strong compression of the vessels of the limb, while the leg is bent in knee and elbow. To fix the limb in this position, you can use any bandaging or tightening the belt.
These methods are the best ways to temporarily stop arterial bleeding. When bleeding, accompanied by pain shock important efficiency, it is therefore necessary to immediately call an ambulance to their arrival to save the man's life.
A little different first aid for arterial bleeding in the region of the carotid artery. A tourniquet cannot be applied directly to the neck, so as not to cause suffocation. For this purpose, the opposite of the bleeding hand under the harness need to put any solid object-type sticks on the wound impose a cotton-gauze bandage.
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